# Mathematical modeling ice-hull interaction for real time simulations of ship manoeuvring in level ice

Liu, Jiancheng (2009) Mathematical modeling ice-hull interaction for real time simulations of ship manoeuvring in level ice. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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## Abstract

A new ice-hull interaction (IHI) model for the real-time simulations of ship manoeuvring in level ice was developed as a basic and necessary step towards the final target of the research of Institute for Ocean Technology (NRC/IOT): a general model that reliably simulates a ship's arbitrary manoeuvres in any ice conditions, which is to be integrated into the training simulator at the Centre for Marine Simulation (CMS) as an internal ice force module of the numerical framework. -- Using an analytical approach and its numerical implementation, the model was built on a detailed analysis of hull-ice interaction mechanics. The model considered the breaking force, buoyancy force and clearing force. The whole hull was divided into ten or more segments and the global ice forces were calculated through vectorially adding the forces on the segments. The hull-ice contacts were calculated based on the ship motion and ice edge in time domain and the channel was tracked using a simple house-keeping method. A multi-failure model was adopted to calculate ice failures along the hull waterline. A flat-plate model was used for the buoyancy force calculation. Both viscous and inertial effects were incorporated into the clearing force. The adoption of the analytical approach yielded a short calculation time that is essential for simulator application. Since the forces were calculated at each new time increment of any prescribed motion, the resulting simulation had the capacity to respond to arbitrary control inputs and hence arbitrary manoeuvres in ice. -- The model was coded using MatLab. Two PMM test series carried out at IOT, using Terry Fox and R-Class scale models, were used to verify the IHI model. The ice force distributions along the waterline of the hull were benchmarked using test data from the National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) of Japan. It is the first time such an extensive experimental database is used for mathematical model verification, which enables separate component validation. -- Investigations of ice-hull interaction including parametric analysis and simulations of specific manoeuvres was carried out using the IHI model and the experiments, which also served as further checks and verifications of the IHI model. Some general conclusions on the ship-ice interaction were drawn up, which were of high value to the modeling of ship manoeuvres and operations in ice. -- This thesis also provides recommendations for future IHI model refinements and benchmarks.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD)) http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/8845 8845 Includes bibliographical references (leaves 286-322). Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of 2009 Submission Hulls (Naval architecture); Ice breaking operations; Ice mechanics; Ships--Maneuverability--Mathematical models