Statistical inference for sequential designs of randomized clinical trials with binary responses

Jayasooriya, Apsara Pathum (2023) Statistical inference for sequential designs of randomized clinical trials with binary responses. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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Sequential designs of Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) allow repeated significance testing based on cumulative data over time. The sequential testing method enables early termination of the study using a pre-defined stopping rule when preliminary results show a clear superiority of one treatment over the other. Over the decades, researchers have presented several techniques for determining the stopping rule, mainly for continuous data. However, clinical trial data are not necessarily continuous. In certain cases, data can be dichotomous, containing only two distinct values. Some researchers have proposed special sequential testing procedures to analyze binary data considering individual data points at each stage. With the in uence of those approaches, we are more focused on a method which can be used to analyse groups of binary data. The thesis considers the implementation of three main approaches, namely, Pocock [32, 34], O'Brien and Fleming [29] and Haybittle-Peto [31, 15] methods for computing the critical values required for controlling the size and power of tests at various stages of sequential analysis. Critical values are obtained using an iterative Markov chain approach to satisfy the alpha spending at each stage. Considering the discrete nature of the data, a likelihood ratio test statistic is used for testing the proportions. Examples of two-stage and three-stage analysis were used to illustrate the computation of the critical values, size and power of tests of proportions, and then the outcomes based on Pocock, O'Brien & Fleming and Haybittle-Peto methods are compared.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Item ID: 15959
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references (pages 78-81)
Keywords: group sequential analysis, critical values, type I error rate, likelihood ratio test, alpha spending functions
Department(s): Science, Faculty of > Mathematics and Statistics
Date: April 2023
Date Type: Submission
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Clinical trials; Research--Methodology; Sequential analysis

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