Analysis of scale effect in compressive ice failure and implications for design

Taylor, Rocky Scott (2010) Analysis of scale effect in compressive ice failure and implications for design. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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The main focus of the study was the analysis of scale effect in local ice pressure resulting from probabilistic (spalling) fracture and the relationship between local and global loads due to the averaging of pressures across the width of a structure. -- A review of fundamental theory, relevant ice mechanics and a critical analysis of data and theory related to the scale dependent pressure behavior of ice were completed. To study high pressure zones (hpz s), data from small-scale indentation tests carried out at the NRC-IOT were analyzed, including small-scale ice block and ice sheet tests. Finite element analysis was used to model a sample ice block indentation event using a damaging, viscoelastic material model and element removal techniques (for spalling). -- Medium scale tactile sensor data from the Japan Ocean Industries Association (JOIA) program were analyzed to study details of hpz behavior. The averaging of non-simultaneous hpz loads during an ice-structure interaction was examined using local panel pressure data. Probabilistic averaging methodology for extrapolating full-scale pressures from local panel pressures was studied and an improved correlation model was formulated. Panel correlations for high speed events were observed to be lower than panel correlations for low speed events. Global pressure estimates based on probabilistic averaging were found to give substantially lower average errors in estimation of load compared with methods based on linear extrapolation (no averaging). Panel correlations were analyzed for Molikpaq and compared with JOIA results. From this analysis, it was shown that averaging does result in decreasing pressure for increasing structure width. -- The relationship between local pressure and ice thickness for a panel of unit width was studied in detail using full-scale data from the STRICE, Molikpaq, Cook Inlet and Japan Ocean Industries Association (JOIA) data sets. A distinct trend of decreasing pressure with increasing ice thickness was observed. The pressure-thickness behavior was found to be well modeled by the power law relationships Pavg = 0.278h⁻⁰.⁴⁰⁸ MPa and Pstd = 0.172h⁻⁰.²⁷³ MPa for the mean and standard deviation of pressure, respectively. -- To study theoretical aspects of spalling fracture and the pressure-thickness scale effect, probabilistic failure models have been developed. A probabilistic model based on Weibull theory (tensile stresses only) was first developed. Estimates of failure pressure obtained with this model were orders of magnitude higher than the pressures observed from benchmark data due to the assumption of only tensile failure. A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model including both tensile and compressive (shear) cracks was developed. Criteria for unstable fracture in tensile and compressive (shear) zones were given. From these results a clear theoretical scale effect in peak (spalling) pressure was observed. This scale effect followed the relationship Pp,th = 0.15h⁻⁰.⁵⁰ MPa which agreed well with the benchmark data. -- The PFM model was applied to study the effect of ice edge shape (taper angle) and hpz eccentricity. Results indicated that specimens with flat edges spall at lower pressures while those with more tapered edges spall less readily. The mean peak (failure) pressure was also observed to decrease with increased eccentricity. It was concluded that hpz s centered about the middle of the ice thickness are the zones most likely to create the peak pressures that are of interest in design. -- Promising results were obtained using the PFM model, which provides strong support for continued research in the development and application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to the study of scale effects in compressive ice failure and to guide the development of methods for the estimation of design ice pressures.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
Item ID: 8651
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 326-348).
Department(s): Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of
Date: 2010
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Fracture mechanics--Mathematical models; Ice mechanics--Mathematical models

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