The Potential of Fish Processing Wastes for Biodiesel Production

Deepika, Dave and Manuel, Heather J. (2014) The Potential of Fish Processing Wastes for Biodiesel Production. Project Report. The Harris Centre.

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The following report represents the efforts of the Centre for Aquaculture and Seafood Development (CASD) research team in characterizing marine oils to identify its potential use as biodiesel feedstock and establish technology in the area of energy and waste management, enhance the competitiveness of Newfoundland and Labrador’s biofuels and help Canada to meet its commitment to GHG emission building the renewable fuels. To date, biodiesel is not readily available in Newfoundland and Labrador, and there are no biodiesel producers operating within the province. The scope of this project is the development of an economically viable and environmentally sustainable biodiesel production system for rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador and to help marine processing plants cut down their operating cost, by diminishing the problem of fish waste disposal, and by providing alternative fuel for the operation of feed barges, marine vessels and generators located at their remote locations. Crude cod (Gadus morhua) liver, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) oil were characterized to identify their suitability for biodiesel production. Since the feedstock oils used for biodiesel production are of diverse origin and quality, initial evaluation of the physical and chemical composition of the feed stock oil is very essential prior to biodiesel production. Investigation of physical properties (smell, color, physical state, moisture and specific gravity), chemical properties (pH, ash content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, p-anisidine value, peroxide value, TOTOX value, free fatty acid, flash point, kinematic viscosity and refractive index) and lipid and fatty acids classification were performed on all marine oils. The characterized marine oils were pale yellow to orange in color and were stable at liquid state at room temperature. The pH (6.5-6.8) values of all oils were neutral. The specific gravity (0.921-0.924 g/cm3), water content (179-325 ppm), ash content (0.0027-0.00455%), free fatty acids (0.03-1.23%), acid (0.057- 0.771 mgKOH/g), peroxide (5.13-9.17 meq O2/kg oil) and p-anisidine (3.36-9.67) values of all oils were within recommended limits, higher acid value in farmed salmon (2.441 mgKOH/g) and higher iodine value (116-139.15 g I2/100 g ). A drying step had to be implemented to remove the water because it can lead to corrosion of internal combustion engine components. Due to higher iodine value, all the oils were drying oils except farmed salmon oil, which was semidrying oil and susceptible to become rancid, which causes reduction of pour point of biodiesel produced in the absence of antioxidant. All three marine oils were more likely to polymerize in the heat of the engine if used directly without transesterification. Flash point of all marine oils was above 200°C and there is no risk of fire outbreaks in case of accidents. Due to higher triacylglycerol (81-93%) content all the oils characterized in this study can be as a feedstock for biodiesel production via transesterification. Cod liver oil (14.72%) was rich in polar lipids while the farmed salmon (2.43%) and wild salmon (2.43%) were low in polar lipids. The phospholipids (1.21-1.67%) were higher than the recommended limit of ≤10 ppm and require a degumming process prior to biodiesel production. All the marine oils in this study have a high degree of unsaturation and polyunsaturated fatty acids and therefore the biodiesel produced from all oils will have less oxidation stability and result in the precipitation of the biodiesel components in a fuel feeding system or combustion chamber. Therefore, it is essential to stabilize the oil using an antioxidant, immediately after extraction/production to obtain a high quality biofuel.

Item Type: Report (Project Report)
Item ID: 8120
Department(s): Marine Institute > Centre for Aquaculture and Seafood Development
Divisions > The Harris Centre
Date: March 2014
Date Type: Publication
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