On the Post-Printing Heat Treatment of a Wire Arc Additively Manufactured ER70S Part

Nemani, Alireza Vahedi and Ghaffari, Mahya and Nasiri, Ali (2020) On the Post-Printing Heat Treatment of a Wire Arc Additively Manufactured ER70S Part. Materials, 13 (12). ISSN 1996-1944

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Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is known to induce a considerable microstructural inhomogeneity and anisotropy in mechanical properties, which can potentially be minimized by adopting appropriate post-printing heat treatment. In this paper, the effects of two heat treatment cycles, including hardening and normalizing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a WAAM-fabricated low-carbon low-alloy steel (ER70S-6) are studied. The microstructure in the melt pools of the as-printed sample was found to contain a low volume fraction of lamellar pearlite formed along the grain boundaries of polygonal ferrite as the predominant micro-constituents. The grain coarsening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) was also detected at the periphery of each melt pool boundary, leading to a noticeable microstructural inhomogeneity in the as-fabricated sample. In order to modify the nonuniformity of the microstructure, a normalizing treatment was employed to promote a homogenous microstructure with uniform grain size throughout the melt pools and HAZs. Differently, the hardening treatment contributed to the formation of two non-equilibrium micro-constituents, i.e., acicular ferrite and bainite, primarily adjacent to the lamellar pearlite phase. The results of microhardness testing revealed that the normalizing treatment slightly decreases the microhardness of the sample; however, the formation of non-equilibrium phases during hardening process significantly increased the microhardness of the component. Tensile testing of the as-printed part in the building and deposition directions revealed an anisotropic ductility. Although normalizing treatment did not contribute to the tensile strength improvement of the component, it suppressed the observed anisotropy in ductility. On the contrary, the hardening treatment raised the tensile strength, but further intensified the anisotropic behavior of the component.

Item Type: Article
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/14884
Item ID: 14884
Additional Information: Memorial University Open Access Author's Fund
Keywords: wire arc additivemanufacturing, ER70S-6, anisotropicmechanical properties, microstructure, heat treatment
Department(s): Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of
Date: 21 June 2020
Date Type: Publication
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122795
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