End-to-end delay analysis for routing protocols in VANETs

Seliem, Hafez (2019) End-to-end delay analysis for routing protocols in VANETs. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) technology enables communication between vehicles, or vehicles and road-side units (RSUs) through wireless communication devices installed on the vehicles. One of the most important goals of VANETs is providing safety applications for passengers. In addition, VANETs provide comfort applications to users. Guaranteeing a reliable and stable routing protocol over VANETs is a very important step. The proposed research attempts to improve routing protocols that decrease the end-to-end delay to suit VANET communication characteristics. In addition, it proposes analysis of the end-to-end delay probability distribution. More specifically, we derive a closed-form expression for the probability distribution of the re-healing delay in a VANET conditioned on the distance between two VANET clusters. Furthermore, we propose a closed-form expression for the probability distribution of the unconditional re-healing delay. Moreover, we develop a mathematical model to calculate the probability distribution of the end-to-end delay. On the other hand, using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones in wireless communications and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) has started to attract attention. We propose a routing protocol that uses infrastructure drones for boosting VANET communications to achieve a minimum vehicle-to-drone packet delivery delay. In addition, we propose a closed-form expression for the probability distribution of the vehicle-to-drone packet delivery delay on a two-way highway. Moreover, based on that closed-form expression, we can calculate the minimum drone density (maximum separation distance between two adjacent drones) that stochastically limits the worst case of the vehicle-to-drone packet delivery delay. Furthermore, we propose a drones-active service (DAS) that is added to the location service in a VANET. This service dynamically and periodically obtains the required number of active drones based on the current highway connectivity state by obtaining the maximum distance between each two adjacent drones while satisfying a probabilistic constraint for vehicle-todrone packet delivery delay. Our analysis focuses on two-way highway VANET networks with low vehicular density. The simulation results show the accuracy of our analysis and reflect the relation between the drone density, vehicular density and speed, other VANET parameters, and the vehicle-to-drone packet delivery delay. In addition, we propose a new routing protocol called multi-copy intersection-based routing (MCIR) for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) in urban areas. MCIR is an intersectionbased routing protocol that forwards multiple copies of the packets in different road segments. Moreover, it is a beacon-less routing protocol with a carry-and-forward strategy. We show via simulation that the MCIR protocol is superior to other existing routing protocols, especially in low vehicular density scenarios. The results show that MCIR achieves a shorter end-to-end delay and a higher packet delivery ratio in urban VANET communications.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/13827
Item ID: 13827
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references.
Keywords: VANET, end-to-end delay, probability distribution, drones, routing protocols
Department(s): Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of
Date: May 2019
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: End-to-end delay (Computer networks)--Analysis; Routing protocols (Computer network protocols).

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