Natural Killer Cells Adapt to Cytomegalovirus Along a Functionally Static Phenotypic Spectrum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Holder, L. Kayla A. and Lajoie, Julie and Grant, Michael D. (2018) Natural Killer Cells Adapt to Cytomegalovirus Along a Functionally Static Phenotypic Spectrum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Frontiers in Immunology, 9. ISSN 1664-3224

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Events related to HCMV infection drive accumulation of functionally enhanced CD57posNKG2Cpos adapted NK cells. We investigated NK cell adaptation to HCMV along a proposed continuum progressing from acute activation through maturation and memory formation towards functional exhaustion. Acute exposure to conditioned medium collected 24 h after HCMV infection (HCMVsn) increased NK cell cytotoxicity for all HCMV-seronegative and seropositive donors tested, with mean 38 and 29% boosts in natural and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively. Increases in NK cell cytotoxicity were completely abrogated by blocking type I interferon (IFN) receptors and equivalent responses occurred with exposure to IFN-α2 alone at the same concentration present in HCMVsn. To study longer term effects of HCMV infection, we focused on three groups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects distinguished as HCMV-seronegative or HCMV-seropositive with either high (>20%) or low (<6%) fractions of their NK cells expressing NKG2C. The NK cells of all three HIV-infected groups responded to HCMVsn and IFN-α2 in a manner similar to the NK cells of either HCMV-seronegative or seropositive controls. Neither HCMV status, nor the extent of phenotypic evidence of adaptation to HCMV infection significantly affected mean levels of ADCC or CD16-mediated NK cell degranulation and IFN-γ production compared between the HIV-infected groups. Levels of IFN-γ production correlated significantly with the fraction of NK cells lacking FcεRIγ (FcRγ), but not with the fraction of NK cells expressing NKG2C. There was negligible expression of exhaustion markers Lag-3 and PD-1 on NK cells in any of the groups and no significant difference between groups in the fraction of NK cells expressing Tim-3. The fraction of NK cells expressing Tim-3 was unaffected by CD16 stimulation. Relative to the total NK cell population, responses of Tim-3-expressing cells to CD16 stimulation were variably compromised in HCMV seronegative and seropositive groups. In general, NK cell function in response to signaling through CD16 was well preserved in HIV infection and although HCMV had a clear effect on NK cell FcRγ and NKG2C expression, there was little evidence that the level of adaptation to HCMV infection affected CD16-dependent NK cell signaling in HIV infection.

Item Type: Article
Item ID: 13647
Additional Information: Memorial University Open Access Author's Fund
Keywords: HCMV, NK, HIV, CD16, NKG2C, CD57, FcεRIγ, Tim-3
Department(s): Medicine, Faculty of > Biomedical Sciences
Date: 12 November 2018
Date Type: Publication
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