# A finite volume approach for the numerical analysis and solution of the Buckley-Leverett equation including capillary pressure

Deb, Pulok Kanti (2018) A finite volume approach for the numerical analysis and solution of the Buckley-Leverett equation including capillary pressure. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland. [English] PDF - Accepted Version Available under License - The author retains copyright ownership and moral rights in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission. Download (5MB)

## Abstract

The study of petroleum recovery is significant for reservoir engineers. Mathematical models of the immiscible displacement process contain various assumptions and parameters, resulting in nonlinear governing equations which are tough to solve. The Buckley-Leverett equation is one such model, where controlling forces like gravity and capillary forces directly act on saturation profiles. These saturation profiles have important features during oil recovery. In this thesis, the Buckley-Leverett equation is solved through a finite volume scheme, and capillary forces are considered during this calculation. The detailed derivation and calculation are also illustrated here. First, the method of characteristics is used to calculate the shock speed and characteristics curve behaviour of the Buckley-Leverett equation without capillary forces. After that, the local Lax-Friedrichs finite-volume scheme is applied to the governing equation (assuming there are no capillary and gravity forces). This mathematical formulation is used for the next calculation, where the cell-centred finite volume scheme is applied to the Buckley- Leverett equation including capillary forces. All calculations are performed in MATLAB. The fidelity is also checked when the finite-volume scheme is computed in the case where an analytical solution is known. Without capillary pressure, all numerical solutions are calculated using explicit methods and smaller time steps are used for stability. Later, the fixed-point iteration method is followed to enable the stability of the local Lax-Friedrichs and Cell-centred finite volume schemes using an implicit formulation. Here, we capture the number of iterations per time-steps (including maximum and average iterations per time-step) to get the solution of water saturation for a new time-step and obtain the saturation profile. The cumulative oil production is calculated for this study and illustrates capillary effects. The influence of viscosity ratio and permeability in capillary effects is also tested in this study. Finally, we run a case study with valid field data and check every calculation to highlight that our proposed numerical schemes can capture capillary pressure effects by generating shock waves and providing single-valued saturation at each position. These saturation profiles help find the amount of water needed in an injection well to displace oil through a production well and obtains good recovery using the water flooding technique.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters) http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/13518 13518 Includes bibliographical references. Buckley-Leverett Equation, Finite Volume Method, Capillary Pressure, Shock veloc Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of October 2018 Submission Two-phase flow--Mathematical models; Secondary recovery of oil. View Item