Avalon and Maryland: a comparative historical archaeology of the seventeenth-century new world provinces of the lords Baltimore (1621-1644)

Miller, Aaron F. (2013) Avalon and Maryland: a comparative historical archaeology of the seventeenth-century new world provinces of the lords Baltimore (1621-1644). Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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The Calverts, a seventeenth-century English family headed by the first and second Lords Baltimore left a remarkable colonial legacy in North America. The Lords Baltimore established not one but two colonies in the 1620s and 1630s, the first becoming the Province of Avalon in Newfoundland and the second the Province of Maryland. Avalon and Maryland examines the defining aspects of these two colonial ventures in order to better comprehend the history and archaeology of each as well as the differences in the two works and how the experiences at the first influenced the implementation of the second. -- The individuals who designed and applied those proposals at the two colonies are key to understanding the decisions made. George Calvert's governmental career and economic pursuits propelled his Newfoundland colony but his evolving settlement goals would change the nature of that work and come to define Maryland. His young heir Cecil took on this design and it would prove to be his life's work. The appointed leaders of the two colonies also played a crucial role in the on-the-ground decisions and based on George Calvert's perceived problems at Newfoundland there was a shift from the leadership of military men to a trusted family member at Maryland. Further analysis of the human aspects of the colonies focuses on their populations. This work examines the population makeup of the two settlements as well as their relationships with the other groups present in each area and its impact on economic and defensive strategies. No other factor had such a powerful effect on settlement as the economic pursuits of the two colonies, predominantly the cod fishery in Newfoundland and tobacco cultivation in Maryland. These and other early commercial ventures projected or implemented in the colonies are examined in depth. Defense also played an important role in the settlement strategy, more so for the two initial communities and the shape these fortified towns would take. The defensive strategies that were implemented were a response to the different perceived threats at the two locales. In Newfoundland, the threat was hostile European forces and naval-based. In Maryland, the dangers were more complex. There too the possibility of attack by European powers was present but they also faced potential Native American adversaries. In addition to the motives behind the settlement patterns, this examination looks at the proposed designs of the two colonies and the resulting settlement landscape. The first decades of Avalon and Maryland have left significant architectural data in the documentary and archaeological records. The construction strategies and the different structures built during this period are examined. The dwellings of the proprietor or their appointed leaders are also inspected. -- This dissertation is a broad analysis of the defining aspects of the two Calvert-sponsored North American settlements: population, economics, defense, settlement, and architecture. This work also reveals the ways in which the Newfoundland colony, specifically its successes and failures, informed the strategies implemented in Maryland. Aspects of the designs would differ based on the geography, local resources, economic potential, and so forth but in many ways Newfoundland and Maryland represent a single push by the Calverts to achieve their colonial goals.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/11043
Item ID: 11043
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 398-427)
Department(s): Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of > Archaeology
Date: 2013
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Excavations (Archaeology)--Newfoundland and Labrador--Avalon Peninsula.

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