The biting flies of the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region

Lewis, D. J.(David James) (1976) The biting flies of the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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    Available under License - The author retains copyright ownership and moral rights in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission.
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Abstract

During the last decade, federal and provincial government departments acquired about 4,000 hectares of land in the Tantrmar Marches in the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region. Some 440 hectares have been dyked and flooded to constant water levels to provide habitat for breeding and migratory waterfowl. This study prepared an inventory of the biting flies of the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region, studied aspects of the population dynamics of these flies, and determined how the species composition and population dynamics of biting flies are influenced by environmental modification and marsh management. -- One hundred and eight species of biting flies (32 Culicidae, 20 Simuliidae, and 56 Tabanidae) are now recorded from the Maritime Provinces. A total of 59 species (19 culicids, 9 simuliids, and 31 tabanids) were collected in the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region during the period 1 May to 31 August, 1973-1975. With the exception of Simulium latipes auct. nec. Meigen, Chrysops calvus Pechuman and Teskey, Hybomitra illota (Osten Sacken), H. Itasca (Philip). And H. typhue Whitney Form B, all species collected in this area were previously recorded in the literature or contained in the Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa. Taxonomic keys were constructed for the families of Culicidae, Simuliidae, and Tabanidae of maritime Canada. -- Seven species of mosquitoes were found in temporary pools of snowmelt origin and three were taken in temporary floodwater pools. Aedespunctor (Kirby) was the most abundant culicid taken in snowmelt pools, and A. cantator (Coquillett) was the most abundant in floodwater pools. One species of each of five genera of mosquitoes were found in permanent marshes. Mansonia perturbans (Walker) was the most abundant mosquito of this group. And was the most serious pest encountered in the Tantramar Marshes and neighboring towns of Sackville, New Brunswick and Amherst, Nova Scotia. -- Nine species of simuliids were found in temporary and permanent streams in the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region. Larvae of a complex of species, consisting of S. venustum Say and S. verecundum Stone and Jamnback, were found in all streams which contained larval simuliids. While adult simuliids were relatively uncommon in the study area, this species complex comprised over two-thirds of the adults collected. -- Ten species of culicids, six species of simuliids, and 15 species of tabanids were taken feeding on man. The principal pest within each group was M. perturbans, S. venustum-verecundum and H. frontalis (Walker). Nine species of tabanids were found feeding on cattle, the most abundant which was H. thphus Form A. -- The seasonal succession of culicids, simuliids, and tabanids, is determined by aerial net sweeps in the Nova Scotia-New Brunswick border region, very closely follows the seasonal succession of the same species in other regions of eastern North America. -- A two-year study of natural and man-made marshes of various ages has indicated that mosquito productivity was greatest in marshes of 3.5 years of age. On the average, the man-made marshes produced over 2.5 times as many mosquitoes as the natural marsh, the majority of which were M. perturbans. -- A system of shoreline modification, constant water levels, and periods of water drawdown in the man-made waterfowl marshes is recommended for control of pest mosquitoes, especially M. perturbans.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/1394
Item ID: 1394
Additional Information: Bibliography: leaves 201-222.
Department(s): Science, Faculty of > Biology
Date: 1976
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Flies; Insect populations; Marsh ecology

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