Yan, Qingyun (2016) Tsunami simulation and detection using global navigation satellite system reflectometry. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
- Accepted Version
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In this thesis, research for tsunami remote sensing using the Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) is presented. Firstly, a process for simulating GNSS-R DDMs of a tsunami-dominated sea sur- face is described. In this method, the bistatic scattering Zavorotny-Voronovich (Z-V) model, the sea surface mean square slope model of Cox and Munk, and the tsunami- induced wind perturbation model are employed. The feasibility of the Cox and Munk model under a tsunami scenario is examined by comparing the Cox and Munk model- based scattering coefficient with the Jason-1 measurement. A good consistency be- tween these two results is obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. After con- firming the applicability of the Cox and Munk model for a tsunami-dominated sea, this work provides the simulations of the scattering coefficient distribution and the corresponding DDMs of a fixed region of interest before and during the tsunami. Fur- thermore, by subtracting the simulation results that are free of tsunami from those with presence of tsunami, the tsunami-induced variations in scattering coefficients and DDMs can be clearly observed. Secondly, a scheme to detect tsunamis and estimate tsunami parameters from such tsunami-dominant sea surface DDMs is developed. As a first step, a procedure to de- termine tsunami-induced sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs) from DDMs is demon- strated and a tsunami detection precept is proposed. Subsequently, the tsunami parameters (wave amplitude, direction and speed of propagation, wavelength, and the tsunami source location) are estimated based upon the detected tsunami-induced SSHAs. In application, the sea surface scattering coefficients are unambiguously re- trieved by employing the spatial integration approach (SIA) and the dual-antenna technique. Next, the effective wind speed distribution can be restored from the scat- tering coefficients. Assuming all DDMs are of a tsunami-dominated sea surface, the tsunami-induced SSHAs can be derived with the knowledge of background wind speed distribution. In addition, the SSHA distribution resulting from the tsunami-free DDM (which is supposed to be zero) is considered as an error map introduced during the overall retrieving stage and is utilized to mitigate such errors from influencing sub- sequent SSHA results. In particular, a tsunami detection procedure is conducted to judge the SSHAs to be truly tsunami-induced or not through a fitting process, which makes it possible to decrease the false alarm. After this step, tsunami parameter estimation is proceeded based upon the fitted results in the former tsunami detec- tion procedure. Moreover, an additional method is proposed for estimating tsunami propagation velocity and is believed to be more desirable in real-world scenarios. The above-mentioned tsunami-dominated sea surface DDM simulation, tsunami detection precept and parameter estimation have been tested with simulated data based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami event.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Additional Information:||Includes bibliographical references (pages 66-74).|
|Keywords:||Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), delay-Doppler map (DDM) simulation, tsunami detection, sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) retrieval, tsunami parameter estimation|
|Department(s):||Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of|
|Library of Congress Subject Heading:||Tsunamis--Remote sensing; Global Positioning System; Doppler tracking; Ocean surface topography--Computer simulation|
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