Unikela, Kiran Sagar (2014) Synthesis and Properties of a Series of 1,1,n,n-Tetramethyl[n](2,11)teropyrenophanes. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
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The work described in this thesis revolves around the 1,1,n,ntetramethyl[n](2,11)teropyrenophanes, which are a series of [n]cyclophanes with a severely bent, board-shaped polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The thesis is divided into seven Chapters. The first Chapter conatins an overview of the seminal work on [n]cyclophanes of the first two members of the “capped rylene” series of PAHs: benzene and pyrene. Three different general strategies for the synthesis of [n]cyclophanes are discussed and this leads in to a discussion of some slected syntheses of [n]paracyclopahnes and [n](2,7)pyrenophanes. The chemical, structural, spectroscopic and photophysical properties of these benzene and pyrene-derived cyclophanes are discussed with emphasis on the changes that occur with changes in the structure of the aromatic system. Chapter 1 concludes with a brief introduction to [n]cyclophanes of the fourth member of the capped rylene series of PAHs: teropyrene. The focus of the work described in Chapter 2 is the synthesis of of 1,1,n,ntetramethyl[n](2,11)teropyrenophane (n = 6 and 7) using a double-McMurry strategy. While the synthesis 1,1,7,7-tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane was successful, the synthesis of the lower homologue 1,1,6,6-tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane was not. The conformational behaviour of [n.2]pyrenophanes was also studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy and this provided a conformation-based rationale for the failure of the synthesis of 1,1,6,6-tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane. Chapter 3 contains details of the synthesis of 1,1,n,n-tetramethyl[n](2,11)teropyrenophanes (n = 7-9) using a Wurtz / McMurry strategy, which proved to be more general than the double McMurry strategy. The three teropyrenophanes were obtained in ca. 10 milligram quantities. Trends in the spectroscopic properties that accompany changes in the structure of the teropyrene system are discussed. A violation of Kasha’s rule was observed when the teropyrenophanes were irradiated at 260 nm. The work described in the fourth Chapter concentrates on the development of gram-scale syntheses of 1,1,n,n-tetramethyl[n](2,11)teropyrenophanes (n = 7–10) using the Wurtz / McMurry strategy. Several major modifications to the orginal synthetic pathway had to be made to enable the first several steps to be performed comfortably on tens of grams of material. Solubility problems severely limited the amount of material that could be produced at a late stage of the synthetic pathways leading to the evennumbered members of the series (n = 8, 10). Ultimately, only 1,1,9,9- tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane was synthesized on a multi-gram scale. In the final step in the synthesis, a valence isomerization / dehydrogenation (VID) reaction, the teropyrenophane was observed to become unstable under the conditions of its formation at n = 8. The synthesis of 1,1,10,10-tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane was achieved for the first time, but only on a few hundred milligram scale. In Chapter 5, the results of an investigation of the electrophilic aromatic bromination of the 1,1,n,n-tetramethyl[n](2,11)teropyrenophanes (n = 7–10) are presented. Being the most abundant cyclophane, most of the work was performed on 1,1,9,9-tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane. Reaction of this compound with varying amounts of of bromine revealed that bromination occurs most rapidly at the symmetryrelated 4, 9, 13 and 18 positions (teropyrene numbering) and that the 4,9,13,18- tetrabromide could be formed exclusively. Subsequent bromination occurs selectively on the symmetry-related 6, 7, 15 and 16 positions (teropyrene numbering), but considerably more slowly. Only mixtures of penta-, hexa-, hepta and octabromides could be formed. Bromination reactions of the higher and lower homologues (n = 7, 8 and 10) revealed that the reactivity of the teropyrene system increased with the degree of bend. Crystal structures of some tetra-, hexa-, hepta- and octa-brominated products were obtained. The goal of the work described in Chapter 6 is to use 1,1,9,9- tetramethyl(2,11)teropyrenophane as a starting material for the synthesis of warped nanographenophanes. A bromination, Suzuki-Miyaura, cyclodehydrogenation sequence was unsuccessful, as was a C–H arylation / cyclodehydrogenation approach. Itami’s recently-developed K-region-selective annulative -extension (APEX) reaction proved to be successful, affording a giant [n]cyclophane with a C84 PAH. Attempted bay-region Diels-Alder reactions and some cursory host-guest chemistry of teropyrenophanes are also discussed. In Chapter 7 a synthetic approach toward a planar model compound, 2,11-di-tbutylteropyrene, is described. The synthesis could not be completed owing to solubility problems at the end of the synthetic pathway.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))|
|Additional Information:||Includes bibliographical references.|
|Keywords:||teropyrenophane, cyclophane, non planar aromatic, pyrenophane, McMurry reaction|
|Department(s):||Science, Faculty of > Chemistry|
|Library of Congress Subject Heading:||Cyclophanes--Synthesis; Cyclophanes--Properties; Bromination; Dehydrogenation|
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