Modelling the influence of neighbourhood design on daily trip patterns in urban neighbourhoods

Jin, Xiongbing (2010) Modelling the influence of neighbourhood design on daily trip patterns in urban neighbourhoods. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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Abstract

To solve problems such as traffic congestion, air pollution, overreliance on the automobile, limited access to transit and reduced social interaction which are often associated with post-war suburban neighbourhood design, several new neighbourhood designs have been proposed, including the neo-traditional (New Urbanism) and the fused grid designs. This study examines the influence of different neighbourhood designs on daily trip patterns in urban neighbourhoods using agent-based computer simulation. An agent based neighbourhood level traffic simulation model, together with the associated software is developed, and the model is calibrated based on maps and data from Ottawa, Ontario. With consideration of personal characteristics, preferences and feedbacks between pedestrian and automobile traffic, the model combines the advantages of utility-based, activity-based and constraint-based approaches, and proves able to generate realistic trip patterns. Experiments are carried out using the calibrated model to explore the influence of different types of neighbourhood design as well as the influence of detailed design features such as the availability of pedestrian-only routes and the location of facilities. Results from the experiments show that the neo-traditional and fused grid designs are generally pedestrian friendly, with fewer crossings, less walking distance to facilities, less traffic and exposure to pollution and more social interaction opportunities for pedestrians; but some of these advantages also depend on the specific implementation. The study shows the promise of a meso-level approach to urban and transportation simulation.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/9553
Item ID: 9553
Additional Information: Bibliography: leaves 213-231.
Department(s): Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of > Geography
Date: 2010
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Neighborhood planning--Computer simulation; Transportation geography--Computer simulation; Urban transportation--Computer simulation

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