Mercer, David John (1996) An examination of the design and appropriate depiction of topographic information on instrument approach charts. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
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Cartographers create maps to represent the spatial relationships of real world phenomena at a much reduced scale and in a limited amount of space. This restricts the amount of information that the cartographer can portray. One of the main objectives of the cartographer is to present the data in a way that maximizes the communicative properties of the map. -- The cockpit of a modem aircraft is a very complex place. The pilot has to contend with information from many different sources. This volume of information requires a high level of concentration in order to operate the aircraft safely. The same holds true for the navigational charts that are used on a routine basis. The pilot must be able to make quick decisions based on the information presented on the charts. If there is too much, or not enough information, the pilot's ability to make effective decisions may be hindered. Maps must be designed to make the task of extracting navigational information as simple and effective as possible. -- This research investigates the effects of cartographic generalization on the pilot's ability to extract information effectively from instrument approach charts. Although the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) sets standards for the construction of aeronautical charts, the standard for topography on an instrument approach chart is vague about the amount of information to be included. Twenty pilots were asked to perform two specific map-use tasks. While performing these tasks, subject's eye movements were recorded using the Stoelting Eyetracker/Pupilometer system. The dependent variables of number of fixations and duration of fixations were examined as well as subjective and objective measures of chart complexity. -- Data obtained through eye movement recording showed that topographic representation should be kept to a minimum. Certain tasks, however, utilize both aero-navigational and topographic information, hence, some topographic data is essential. A subjective evaluation of topographic information content also revealed that subjects derived some benefit from the presence of topographic data. These results corroborated the eye movement data by indicating that charts displaying a high level of topographic information contributed to inefficient data extraction and difficulty of use.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Additional Information:||Bibliography: leaves 142-147.|
|Department(s):||Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of > Geography|
|Library of Congress Subject Heading:||Instrument landing systems--Charts, diagrams, etc.--Design; Aeronautical charts--Design; Eye--Movements; Map reading|
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