Analytical investigation and implementation of carry and forward based routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc network

Hassan, Aslinda (2014) Analytical investigation and implementation of carry and forward based routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc network. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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    Available under License - The author retains copyright ownership and moral rights in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission.
    (Original Version)

Abstract

Recent research studies have recognized the applicability of carry and forward based routing in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), where packets are stored and carried by a moving vehicle until another vehicle comes into its transmission range and the packets are transmitted via wireless channel. This thesis explores several research topics concerning the use of a carry and forward approach in a vehicular network. In the first part of our research, we develop an end-to-end delay model in a unidirectional highway using vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity parameters that include the carry and forward approach which extends an existing catch-up time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. Consequently, two distributions are newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. The analytical results obtained from the end-to-end distribution model are then validated through simulation results. In the second part of our research, we present a fuzzy logic based beaconing system where beacon intervals are adjusted based on packet carried time, number of single-hop neighbors, and vehicles speed. It is common for vehicles in a VANET to exchange information by broadcasting beacon messages periodically. This information is required not only for routing protocols when making routing decisions, but also for safety applications. Choosing a suitable interval for broadcasting beacon messages has been considered a communication challenge since there will be a trade-off between information accuracy and channel usage. Therefore, an adaptive beaconing approach is needed so that vehicles can regulate their beacon rate based on traffic condition. Through simulation in a grid model and a realistic scenario, we are able to show that the fuzzy logic based beaconing system is not only able to reduce routing overhead and packet collision, but also decrease the average end-to-end delay and increase the delivery rate as well. The last issue of this thesis focuses on developing a proactive multi-copy routing protocol with carry and forward mechanism that is able to deliver packets from a source vehicle to a destination vehicle at a small delivery delay. It has been ascertained by the majority of researches in VANET that the carry and forward procedure can significantly affect an end-to-end delivery delay. Our approach is to replicate data packets and distribute them to different relays. The proposed protocol creates enough diversity to reach the destination vehicle with a small end-to-end delivery delay while keeping low routing overhead by routing multiple copies independently. The simulation results in an urban grid model show that the proposed multi-copy forwarding protocol is able to deliver packets at small delivery delay compared to a single-copy forwarding algorithm without having to rely on real time traffic data or flooding mechanism.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/6443
Item ID: 6443
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references (pages 142-158).
Department(s): Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of
Date: May 2014
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Vehicular ad hoc networks (Computer networks); Routing (Computer network management); Packet transport networks; Traffic flow--Computer simulation

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