Transdermal delivery of cyclosporin A by electrically enhanced permeation techniques

Wang, Su (1997) Transdermal delivery of cyclosporin A by electrically enhanced permeation techniques. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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Abstract

Transdermal drug delivery has recently received increasing attention in the face of growing challenges to deliver peptide and protein drugs. Controlled transdermal delivery is an important route for the delivery of peptides and proteins that can maintain the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug by minimizing enzymatic degradation which is a major concern in other noninvasive routes of delivery such as the oral route. Although the advantages of transdermal delivery are very desirable, the natural obstacle to drug entry imposed by the skin's barrier function makes it one of the most difficult route of administration. Iontophoresis and electroporation have been reported to be useful as permeation enhancing techniques in the transdermal delivery of protein and peptide drugs. The objective of present study is to use the above enhancement techniques to deliver cyclosporin A (CSA) to treat psoriasis. The in vitro experiments were performed using hairless rat skin as the model with Franz diffusion cells for iontophoresis and custom made diffusion cells for electroporation. The donor drug solution of CSA consisted of an aqueous solution of CSA - polymer solid dispersion, coevaporate, and/or a hydroethanolic solution of CSA PBS was used as the receiver solution. ³H labelled CSA and ¹⁴C labelled ethanol were used to facilitate analysis using a liquid scintillation counter. The control experiment consisted of passive diffusion study. Silver/silver chloride electrodes were used in all studies. In the iontophoresis experiments a constant DC current (0.5 mA/cm²) was used. In the electroporation experiments different delivery parameters were studied: (1) applied electrode voltage (Uelectrode), (2) decay time constant (τ), (3) the number of pulses delivered - single or multiple, and { 4) the time of diffusive contact with drug after electroporation ('contact duration'). Compared to the passive diffusion, iontophoresis did not result in a significant increase in the amount of CSA delivered transdermally with both the CSA-polymer donor and hydroethanolic drug solutions. With the use of electroporation there was a significant increase in the transdermal delivery, compared to passive transport. With the CSA-polymer coevaporate donor solution the increase in delivery was only about 6 fold higher whereas with the hydroethanolic solution the increase was about 60 times higher compared to passive diffusion. The 'contact duration• was an important fader and a 4-hour 'contact duration' was found to be the optimum time period required for effective transdermal delivery. Use of single pulse (τ=5.6 ms) electroporation resulted in a significant increase {p<0.05) in the delivery of CSA in skin {CSA.n) and EtOH in receiver (EtOHreceiver). With multiple pulse (τ=10 ms. 25 pulses) the increase in CSAskin was more pronounced with a 60 fold increase than compared to the passive delivery. However there was no significant increase in the other two quantities viz. CSAreceiver, and EtCHreceiver.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/12311
Item ID: 12311
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references (pages 116-141).
Department(s): Pharmacy, School of
Date: April 1997
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Cyclosporine; Transdermal medication.
Medical Subject Heading: Administration, Cutaneous; Cyclosporine; Electroporation.

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