Analysis of N-nitrosames in water using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and development of online and offline methods of extraction and enrichment of neutral polar analytes

Modir-Rousta, Ali (2015) Analysis of N-nitrosames in water using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and development of online and offline methods of extraction and enrichment of neutral polar analytes. Doctoral (PhD) thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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Abstract

Evaluation of the quality of the environment is essential for human wellness as pollutants in trace amounts can cause serious health problem. Nitrosamines are a group of compounds that are considered potential carcinogens and can be found in drinking water (as disinfection byproducts), foods, beverages and cosmetics. To monitor the level of these compounds to minimize daily intakes, fast and reliable analytical techniques are required. As these compounds are relatively highly polar, extraction and enrichment from environmental samples (aqueous) are challenging. Also, the trend of analytical techniques toward the reduction of sample size and minimization of organic solvent use demands new methods of analysis. In light of fulfilling these requirements, a new method of online preconcentration tailored to an electrokinetic chromatography is introduced. In this method, electroosmotic flow (EOF) was suppressed to increase the interaction time between analyte and micellar phase, therefore the only force to mobilize the neutral analytes is the interaction of analyte with moving micelles. In absence of EOF, polarity of applied potential was switched (negative or positive) to force (anionic or cationic) micelles to move toward the detector. To avoid the excessive band broadening due to longer analysis time caused by slow moving micelles, auxiliary pressure was introduced to boost the micelle movement toward the detector using an in house designed and built apparatus. Applying the external auxiliary pressure significantly reduced the analysis times without compromising separation efficiency. Parameters, such as type of surfactants, composition of background electrolyte (BGE), type of capillary, matrix effect, organic modifiers, etc., were evaluated in optimization of the method. The enrichment factors for targeted analytes were impressive, particularly; cationic surfactants were shown to be suitable for analysis of nitrosamines due to their ability to act as hydrogen bond donors. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) also showed remarkable results in term of peak shapes and number of theoretical plates. It was shown that the separation results were best when a high conductivity sample was paired with a BGE of lower conductivity. Using higher surfactant concentrations (up to 200 mM SDS) than usual (50 mM SDS) for micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) improved the sweeping. A new method for micro-extraction and enrichment of highly polar neutral analytes (N-Nitrosamines in particular) based on three-phase drop micro-extraction was introduced and its performance studied. In this method, a new device using some easy-to-find components was fabricated and its operation and application demonstrated. Compared to conventional extraction methods (liquid-liquid extraction), consumption of organic solvents and operation times were significantly lower.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral (PhD))
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/12209
Item ID: 12209
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references.
Keywords: Analytical Chemistry, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC), Online Preconcentration, Neutral Polar Componds, N-Nitrosamines, Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts
Department(s): Science, Faculty of > Chemistry
Date: August 2015
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Nitrosoamines--Analysis; Chromatographic analysis; Carcinogens--Analysis; Polarization (Electricity)

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