Delayed diagnosis and issues with pump usage are the leading causes of diabetic ketoacidosis in children with diabetes living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Chafe, Roger and Jackman, Jessica and Albrechtsons, Daniel and Porter, Robert Neil and Nugent, Colleen and Waheed, Shahzad and Newhook, Leigh A. (2015) Delayed diagnosis and issues with pump usage are the leading causes of diabetic ketoacidosis in children with diabetes living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. BMC Research Notes, 8 (158). ISSN 1756-0500

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Abstract

Background Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has a very high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and admission rate for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics and precipitating factors associated with pediatric DKA in this population. Methods This was a retrospective study on children diagnosed with DKA from 2007–2011 admitted to the province’s only tertiary care pediatric hospital. Demographics, biochemical characteristics, and reasons for DKA diagnosis were analyzed. Chi-square and Fisher Exact tests were performed for categorical variables; t- and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for continuous variables. Results A total of 90 children were admitted with DKA (39.5% newly diagnosed; 60.5% were previously diagnosed). The rate of DKA on presentation for incident cases was 22.1%. More severe cases of DKA occurred in younger, newly diagnosed patients. Almost half of preexisting diabetes cases were recurrent DKA (49.1%). The most common presenting characteristics of newly diagnosed patients were weight loss, bedwetting, polyuria, polydipsia, and neurologic symptoms. Pre-existing diabetes patients most often presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Diagnosis of diabetes in new patients and issues related to interrupted insulin delivery in pre-existing patients using insulin pump therapy were the most common factors associated with DKA. Of the newly diagnosed patients presenting in DKA, 64% had seen a physician in the weeks leading up to diagnosis. Conclusions Pediatric patients have predictable patterns associated with a diagnosis of DKA. Most cases of DKA could be prevented with earlier diagnosis and improved education and problem-solving by families and health care providers. DKA preventative strategies are recommended and should be aimed at patients, their families, and health care professionals especially those outside of pediatric centers.

Item Type: Article
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/11828
Item ID: 11828
Additional Information: Memorial University Open Access Author's Fund
Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis, Type 1 diabetes, Pediatric Prevention
Department(s): Medicine, Faculty of
Date: 16 April 2015
Date Type: Publication
Geographic Location: Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
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