The production effect: the role of attentional resources

Slaney, Brandon (2015) The production effect: the role of attentional resources. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

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Abstract

The production effect is the benefit in memory found for produced (i.e., read aloud) words relative to words read silently. It is proposed that the production effect occurs as a result of the enhanced distinctiveness associated with the produced items. The current research investigated whether attentional resources are required to encode and/or retrieve the distinctive information associated with the produced words. The literature suggests that the encoding of this distinctive information occurs automatically, but at test, purposeful attention is required to retrieve this distinctive information. To test this, participants read words aloud and silently, under either full or divided attention. Participants then completed either a recognition (Experiment 1) or free recall (Experiment 2) memory test under either full or divided attention. The findings show that when attention is divided at encoding, the benefit for aloud words remains for both recognition and free recall. When attention is divided at test, however, the benefit for aloud words remains for recognition but is absent for free recall. Overall, these results suggest that the distinctive information associated with produced words is encoded automatically, but it may not be accessible at test under attentionally demanding conditions.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
URI: http://research.library.mun.ca/id/eprint/11661
Item ID: 11661
Additional Information: Includes bibliographical references (pages 48-53).
Keywords: Attention, Memory, Production Effect
Department(s): Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of > Psychology
Science, Faculty of > Psychology
Date: October 2015
Date Type: Submission
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Memory--Testing; Silent reading--Psychological testing; Oral reading--Psychological testing

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